personalized pathway activated systems imaging in oncology principal and instrumentation

tomio inoue


this comprehensive volume covers radiopharmaceuticals developed for pathway-directed systems in imaging and theranostic applications. we now are at the cutting edge of providing personalized treatment with increased use in oncology of these new radiopharmaceuticals. trends in high-resolution instrumentation development, quality assurance systems and regulatory compliance for radiopharmaceuticals, clinical evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals, and benefits and pitfalls of the current clinical fdg pet are discussed. radiopharmaceuticals are used for diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems and for staging, restaging, and treatment planning for cancers. nuclear biomarkers allow precise measurement of molecular pathways on a whole-body image upon administration of functional radiolabeled agents, and nuclear imaging agents have potential use in patient selection, pharmacokinetic, dosage-finding, and proof-of-concept studies. nuclear imaging agents and hybrid instrumentation also provide sensitive and specific answers for differential responsiveness in therapeutic outcome.
this book serves as a reference for moving the discovery and development of radiopharmaceuticals from the workbench to clinical applications. it thus benefits not only clinicians but also translational research scientists-molecular biologists, chemists, imaging scientists, pharmaceutical developers, physicists, and support more

diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine for neuroendocrine tumors 2017

karel pacak


based on the most novel approaches and cutting-edge clinical and scientific information regarding radionuclide imaging and therapies for neuroendocrine tumors, this clinical guidebook represents a unique collaborative effort between endocrinologists, nuclear physicians, oncologists, surgeons, physicists, radio-pharmacists and geneticists. it begins with the embryology, classification and molecular genetics of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoids, chromaffin cell tumors, and men1- and men2-related tumors. following a chapter on radiopharmaceuticals in neuroendocrine imaging, it turns to the physics and technology of current and cutting-edge radiology, including spect/ct and pet/ct and pet/mr. discussing of radionuclide imaging covers the tumors mentioned above, as well as pulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine tumors and medullary thyroid carcinoma. a presentation of radionuclide therapies follows, including 131i-mibg therapy, somatostatin receptor-based therapy, and alpha radionuclide therapy, as well as the role of nanoparticles.
comprehensive and up-to-date, diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine for neuroendocrine tumors will assist and guide physicians who encounter patients with these conditions, either from a diagnostic or therapeutic standpoint, and particularly emphasizes the current and emerging medical devices and imaging and therapeutic more

atlas of cardiac innervation 2017

vasken dilsizian


this atlas elucidates the role of the neuronal component in normal cardiovascular function and cardiac disorders and discusses the currently available imaging targets and probes. it provides a foundation in cardiac neuronal imaging and image processing and serves as a guide in the effective utilization of these techniques in clinical and research settings. the atlas discusses the principles of autonomic control in the regulation of cardiac function and disease; chemistry and biology of radiotracers designed to target changes in the myocardial sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation as a function of disease or treatment; neuronal imaging in heart failure and reverse remodeling and the use of pet imaging in quantification of cardiac innervation; cardiac sympathetic innervation in ventricular arrhythmias and device therapy; conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system; and the role of myocardial blood flow and cardiac neuronal imaging in denervation and reinnervation in cardiac transplant recipients.
featuring full-color illustrations, schematic diagrams, and diagnostic algorithms, atlas of cardiac innervation is a valuable resource for cardiologists, radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians, and more

conventional nuclear medicine in pediatrics a clinical case based atlas

maria carmen garganese


this superbly illustrated book combines the systematic approach of a textbook with the simplicity of consultation of an atlas in order to provide a comprehensive guide to the applications and benefits of scintigraphic studies in children. all of the clinical scenarios in which conventional nuclear medicine techniques frequently play a role in children are covered, with explanation of imaging diagnosis, the relevance of clinical history, problem solving, and pitfalls. the images themselves are the key focus of the book, and in each setting the added value offered by scintigraphy is carefully identified. the book also describes management of the pediatric patient and addresses general considerations, including reception, interaction with parents, radiopharmaceutical administration, image acquisition, radiation exposure, and the relationship of nuclear medicine and radiology. since the child is not a young adult, it is insufficient simply to adapt nuclear medicine procedures performed in adults to the age and size of the child. conventional nuclear medicine in pediatrics will be a rich source of information for all who perform these procedures in the pediatric more

petct in neuroendocrine tumors

valentina ambrosini


this pocket book provides up-to-date descriptions of the most relevant features of neuroendocrine tumors (nets) and the imaging modalities currently available to assist specialists (clinicians, pathologists, radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians) in selecting optimal patient management based on interdisciplinary collaboration. as the title indicates, the focus is particularly on pet/ct, with coverage of basic principles, the available radiopharmaceuticals, indications, typical and atypical appearances, normal variants and artifacts, advantages, limitations, and pitfalls. in addition, succinct information is provided on the use of other imaging modalities, including spect, ct, and mri, and on pathology and treatment options. imaging teaching cases are presented, and key points are highlighted throughout. the book is published as part of a series on hybrid imaging that is specifically aimed at referring clinicians, nuclear medicine/radiology physicians, radiographers/technologists, and nurses who routinely work in nuclear medicine and participate in multidisciplinary more

petct in lymphomas 2016 a case based atlas

john andreou


drawing on an extensive series of cases, this book describes and illustrates in detail the fdg-pet/ct appearances of the most common lymphomas in both adults and children, covering presentations at various anatomic sites. in addition, all other aspects of the current application of fdg-pet/ct in the evaluation and management of patients with malignant lymphomas are described. full explanations are provided of the potential benefits and limitations of advanced pet/ct techniques and technologies that support novel chemotherapy and radiotherapy approaches in the treatment of lymphoma, and particular attention is paid to the major challenge of incorporating progress in quantitative imaging technology into radiotherapy treatment planning, guidance, and monitoring. this clinical case-based atlas will be an invaluable tool for radiologists, hematologists, and clinical more

petct in gynecological cancers 2016

tara barwick


this book is a pocket guide to the science and practice of pet/ct imaging of gynecological malignancies. the scientific principles of pet/ct, the radiopharmaceuticals used in the context of gynecological cancers, the role of pet/ct in these patients, the characteristic pet/ct findings, and limitations and pitfalls are all clearly described. in addition, information is provided on clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, pathology, management, and radiological imaging. the book is published within the springer series clinicians' guides to hybrid imaging, which is aimed at referring clinicians, nuclear medicine/radiology physicians, radiographers/technologists, and nurses who routinely work in nuclear medicine and participate in multidisciplinary meetings. compiled under the auspices of the british nuclear medicine society, the series is the joint work of many colleagues and professionals worldwide who share a common vision and purpose in promoting and supporting nuclear medicine as an important imaging specialty for the diagnosis and management of oncological and non-oncological more

oncological petct with histological confirmation 2016

juliano cerci


this book reviews the important new field of pet/ct-guided biopsy, which is of potential value in optimizing the diagnostic yield of biopsies. the role of this technology is examined in a range of malignancies, including lymphoma, pancreatic, breast cancer and cns malignancies. true positive and false positive cases are presented and discussed, and many aspects of pet and pathology are addressed. the book describes many case presentations illustrated with mostly 18f-fdg pet/ct images, but also other pet radiopharmaceuticals such as 18f-flt. the three editors are expert nuclear medicine physicians from europe and north and south america, and the range of experiences gained in using pet/ct across the globe is reflected in the more

radtool nuclear medicine flash facts 2016

dv –> var ue_hoe = +new date();


this book is a learning aid and reference tool that provides all the important information pertaining to radioactive tracers within a single, easy-to-read volume. it introduces a new learning methodology that will help the reader to recall key facts on each tracer, including production, physical and chemical characteristics, study protocols, mechanism of action, distribution, and clearance. in addition, normal and abnormal tracer distributions are graphically reproduced on an outline of the human body using multiple colors. the book will be of value for all radiologists and medical students seeking a reliable source of essential information on radioactive tracers that can be readily consulted during everyday practice and used in preparation for more

quality in nuclear medicine 2016

andor w. j. m. glaudemans


this comprehensive textbook provides a state of the art overview of the means by which quality in patient care is ensured within the field of nuclear medicine. acknowledged experts in the field cover both management aspects, such as laws, standards, guidelines, patient safety, management instruments, and organisations, and specific issues, including radiation safety and equipment. quality in nuclear medicine not only presents detailed information on the topics discussed but should also stimulate further discussion and offer an important tool to all professionals in the field of nuclear medicine and their stakeholders. readers will find that the book provides a wealth of excellent guidance and reflects the pioneering role of nuclear medicine in advancing different aspects of quality within more

pet scan in hodgkin lymphoma 2016 role in diagnosis prognosis and treatment

andrea gallamini


this book describes the various contributions of positron emission tomography (pet) to the management of hodgkin lymphoma and considers key issues in its use. a full explanation of the value of pet in disease staging and restaging is followed by discussion of its role in guiding individualized, response-adapted therapy in both early and advanced disease based on assessment of treatment sensitivity. further chapters explore in detail the current application of pet for determination of tumor metabolic volume and planning of involved field radiotherapy. the book concludes by discussing pet scan reporting in clinical practice and the rules that have now been formally set following a number of international workshops designed to develop standard reporting criteria based on expert agreement. the authors are leading authorities who adopt an interdisciplinary approach in covering the most important aspects of the use of pet in hodgkin lymphoma in a readily understandable way. pet scan in hodgkin lymphoma will be of value to oncologists, hematologists, medical physicists, radiotherapists, and nuclear medicine more

petct in oesophageal and gastric cancer 2016

teresa szyszko


this book is a pocket guide to the science and practice of pet/ct imaging of esophageal and gastric malignancies. the scientific principles of pet/ct, the radiopharmaceuticals used in this context, the role of pet/ct, the characteristic pet/ct findings, and limitations and pitfalls are all clearly described. in addition, information is provided on epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, pathology, management, and radiological imaging. the book is published within the springer series clinicians' guides to hybrid imaging, which is aimed at referring clinicians, nuclear medicine/radiology physicians, radiographers/technologists, and nurses who routinely work in nuclear medicine and participate in multidisciplinary meetings. compiled under the auspices of the british nuclear medicine society, the series is the joint work of many colleagues and professionals worldwide who share a common vision and purpose in promoting and supporting nuclear medicine as an important imaging specialty for the diagnosis and management of oncological and non-oncological more

basic science of pet imaging 2017

magdy m. khalil


this book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying pet and its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. in addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of pet in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. the opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, ct scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of pet radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of pet radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in europe and the united states. pet physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of pet and pet scanning systems, hybrid pet/ct and pet/mr imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in pet and hybrid pet and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts.
the book closes by examining clinical applications of pet and hybrid pet and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, pet in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. basic science of pet imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these more

atlas and anatomy of petmri petct and spectct 2016

e. edmund kim


this atlas showcases cross-sectional anatomy for the proper interpretation of images generated from pet/mri, pet/ct, and spect/ct applications. hybrid imaging is at the forefront of nuclear and molecular imaging and enhances data acquisition for the purposes of diagnosis and treatment. simultaneous evaluation of anatomic and metabolic information about normal and abnormal processes addresses complex clinical questions and raises the level of confidence of the scan interpretation. extensively illustrated with high-resolution pet/mri, pet/ct and spect/ct images, this atlas provides precise morphologic information for the whole body as well as for specific regions such as the head and neck, abdomen, and musculoskeletal system. atlas and anatomy of pet/mri, pet/ct, and spect/ct is a unique resource for physicians and residents in nuclear medicine, radiology, oncology, neurology, and more

a history of radionuclide studies in the uk 2016 50th anniversary of the british nuclear medicine society

ralph mccready


the british nuclear medicine society celebrates its 50th anniversary with this booklet, which reflects the research of many of the pioneers in the use of radionuclides for the diagnosis and therapy of human disease. since 1949 there have been remarkable advances in radionuclide techniques and imaging equipment: from the first devices "home-made" in the many physics departments throughout the uk, to the sophisticated multimodality imagers now in everyday use in nuclear medicine. the bnms has been instrumental in promoting the use of radionuclide techniques in the investigation of pathology by supporting and providing education, research and guidelines on the optimum use of radiation to help patients. the future of nuclear medicine is bright, thanks to improved imaging resolution, new radiopharmaceuticals, and new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and more

nuclear medicine and petct technology and techniques

kristen m. waterstram-rich


master the latest imaging procedures and technologies in nuclear medicine! medicine and pet/ct: technology and techniques, 8th edition provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art information on all aspects of nuclear medicine. coverage of body systems includes anatomy and physiology along with details on how to perform and interpret related diagnostic procedures. the leading technologies – spect, pet, ct, mri, and pet/ct – are presented, and radiation safety and patient care are emphasized. edited by nuclear imaging and pet/ct educator kristen m. waterstram-rich and written by a team of expert contributors, this reference features new information on conducting research and managing clinical more

pet ct 2016 a case based approach

peter s. conti

this book presents original case studies performed on dedicated pet-ct devices and showcases common and uncommon cancers and the latest pet-ct applications for neurological, pediatric, and cardiovascular disorders. this authoritative book, now in its second edition, presents correlative three-dimensional cross-sectional pet and ct images that highlight pathological findings. each case example is accompanied by a concise explanation of the patient history and interpretation of the pet-ct study. "pearls and pitfalls" and insightful discussions are included to assist in the understanding of pathology, diagnosis, and imaging approaches. the book also discusses pathophysiology and technical artifacts and summarizes the advantages and limitations of using this technology in the clinical setting. pet-ct: a case-based approach, second edition, is a valuable resource for nuclear medicine practitioners, radiologists, and residents, as well as referring clinicians interested in learning more about how this imaging modality can be applied in their patient populations. peter s.
conti is a professor of radiology and the director of the pet imaging science center at the university of southern california, and is a fellow of both the american college of radiology and american college of nuclear physicians. he is a pioneer in the development of the clinical applications of pet and pet-ct.

radiopharmaceuticals for therapy 2016

ashutosh dash

this book provides detailed information on therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and discusses emerging technologies which have potential for broad clinical implementation. recent advances in molecular biology, radiopharmaceutical chemistry and radioisotope production have stimulated a new era for the use of radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy (trt). emerging clinical trials include use of peptides and monoclonal antibodies radiolabeled with therapeutic radionuclides for cancer therapy. in addition, small molecules are used for the treatment of chronic diseases such as metastatic bone pain palliation and radiation synovectomy of inflammatory joints. in the interventional arena, therapy of primary and metastatic liver cancer and arterial restenosis following angioplasty of both the coronary and peripheral arteries are being explored. reactor and accelerator production of therapeutic radioisotopes is also integrated into these discussions. the development and use of radiopharmaceutical targeting characteristics required for treatment of specific disease processes and how these are implemented for radiopharmaceutical design strategies are also described.
radiopharmaceuticals for therapy will benefit audiences in nuclear medicine and radionuclide therapy and will thus prove an invaluable source of up-to-date information for students, radiopharmaceutical scientists and professionals working in the radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine specialties.

special techniques and technical advances in petct imaging an issue of pet clinics

rakesh kumar

this issue of pet clinics focuses on special techniques and technical advances in pet/ct imaging. articles will include: pet/ct guided fnac/biopsy; dual time point imaging; overview of conventional imaging based intervention in clinical practice; special techniques in pet/ct in evaluating genito-urinary malignances; special techniques in pet/ct imaging for evaluation of head and neck cancer; pet/ct enteroclysis; contrast media in pet/ct imaging; pet/ct guided rfa; non-attenuated corrected pet/ct imaging and applications; and more!

petct imaging in tracers beyond fdg an issue of pet clinics

mohsen beheshti

this issue of pet clinics examines pet/ct imaging in tracers beyond fdg. article include standardization and quantification in pet/ct imaging: tracers beyond fdg; 18f naf pet/ct imaging; 18f naf pet/ct imaging in pediatrics; choline pet/ct imaging for the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis; dopa pet/ct imaging for the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis; 68 gassrts pet/ct imaging for the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis; flt pet/ct imaging for the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis; hypoxia tracers; pet/mri tracers beyond fdg: current status and future aspects; pet/ct normal variations: effect of novel quantitative approaches; and more!

petct and patient outcomes issue of pet clinics part ii

rathan subramaniam

this two-part issue, edited by dr. rathan subramaniam, reviews current clinical information in "pet/ct and patient outcomes." in part ii of this issue, articles will include: hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer; endometrial, cervical & ovarian cancer; renal, bladder and testicular cancer; musculoskeletal and soft tissue tumors; myocardial perfusion / viability; unknown primary cancer; gastric cancer; brain tumors; neuroendocrine tumors, and more!

pet based interventions an issue of pet clinics

rakesh kumar

this issue, edited by dr. rakesh kumar, reviews current clinical information in "pet based interventions." articles will include: pet/ct in radiofrequency ablation; pet/ct guided fnac/biopsy; pet/ct in radiotherapy planning; dual time point imaging; the role of pet in radiation oncology; pet/ct in individualization of treatment (personalized medicine); ga68-dota-toc pet/ct in targeted radionuclide therapy (lu188 therapy for net); role of fdg pet/ct in targeted radionuclide therapy of endocrine malignancies; overview of conventional imaging based intervention in clinical practice; special techniques in pet/ct in evaluating genito-urinary malignancies; and more!

contribution of fdg to modern medicine part ii an issue of pet clinics

s ren hess

part ii of the important issue on contribution of fdg to modern medicine. articles will include: fdg in infectious/inflammatory diseases, fdg in cardiovascular disease, assesment of treatment response using pet, pet based chemotherapy response assessment, pet based radiation therapy planning, pet based interventional radiology, pet/mri, evolving and upcoming applications of fdg-pet in medicine, and more.

contribution of fdg to modern medicine an issue of pet clinics part i

soren hess

this issue of pet clinics examines the contribution of fdg to modern medicine. in the first of two issues, articles include: the basic principles of fdg-pet/ct imaging; fdg-pet in diffuse large b-cell lymphoma; fdg-pet in thoracic malignancies; fdg-pet/ct in gastrointestinal malignancies; fdg-pet/ct in infectious and inflammatory diseases; fdg in urologic malignancies; fdg-pet for interventional oncology in liver malignancy; fdg-pet in neurology and psychiatry, and more!

interventional oncology

ripal t. gandhi; suvranu ganguli; salomao faintuch

interventional oncology is a concise, practical guide to state-of-the-art, image-guided procedures that are among the most innovative and effective cancer treatment options available today. each chapter is presented in a similar format that includes indications, contraindications, patient selection, pre-procedure workup, technique, post procedure management, and clinical data. this book is the perfect high-yield manual for practitioners to consult before seeing oncology patients, as well as for intra and post-procedure management.

key features:

  • high-quality color illustrations and multi-modality clinical images
  • covers all the latest interventional oncology procedures
  • chapter authors are leading authorities in the field
  • tips and pearls at the end of each chapter and a comprehensive set of references

this book is an excellent clinical guide for seasoned interventional radiologists as well as trainees in interventional oncology to consult on a day–to–day basis.


clinical nuclear medicine in pediatrics

mansi, l., lopci, e., cuccurullo, v., chiti, a. (eds.)

this book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of pediatric nuclear medicine, encompassing both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. detailed attention is paid to the role of fdg pet-ct within oncology, but a variety of other long-established or less frequently used diagnostic procedures are also covered. each indication is critically discussed from a clinical perspective, with analysis of benefits and limitations and comparison against the information yield of alternative techniques. the coverage of therapy based on radiopharmaceuticals includes the most relevant current strategies, including those utilizing radioiodine, mibg, or radiolabelled peptides. in addition, issues concerning the radiation risk of nuclear medicine procedures in children are addressed. all chapters have been written by international experts and include the most up-to-date scientific and clinical information.

basics of pet imaging physics chemistry and regulations

saha, gopal b.

this revised edition of basics of pet imaging presents an unparalleled text on the basics of pet imaging technology. distinguished author, dr. gopal b. saha, has updated his previous bestselling work with concise chapters on pet fundamentals, including:

  • basic physics
  • instrumentation and data acquisition
  • production of pet radionuclides
  • performance characteristics of pet scanners
  • regulatory and reimbursement issues

to maximize understanding, and to help technologists and residents prepare for board exams, chapters include pertinent basic science and equations along with sample problems and practice questions. the remarkable combination of dr. saha’s brevity and clarity of content once again makes this edition an ideal reference book for nuclear medicine professionals interested in the basics of pet imaging.

nuclear medicine and petct cases

by chun k kim

  • covers the full range of nuclear medicine cases: neurologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, gi, infection and inflammation, skeletal, pediatric, and oncologic
  • succinctly summarizes radiologic findings, differential diagnosis in order of frequency, teaching points, and provides next steps in management
  • includes fusion imaging – pet/ct – cases
  • over 550 high-quality images provide a visual resource for honing diagnostic skills

in 194 cases featuring over 450, high-quality images, nuclear medicine and pet/ct cases provides a succinct review of clinically relevant cases covering the full range of nuclear medicine. cases are grouped into sections including: nuclear cns imaging, nuclear inflammation/infection imaging, ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy, pediatric nuclear medicine, cardiac imaging, bone scintigraphy, pet/ct in oncology, general oncologic imaging, thyroid and parathyroid, radionuclide therapy and pre-therapy evaluation, liver, spleen and biliary tract, gastrointestinal tract, renal scintigraphy. part of the cases in radiology series, this book follows the easy-to-use format of question and answer in which the patient history is provided on the first page of the case, and radiologic findings, differential diagnosis, teaching points, next steps in management, and suggestions for furthering reading are revealed on the following page. this casebook is an essential resource for radiology residents and practicing radiologists alike.

nuclear medicine practical physics artifacts and pitfalls 2

by daniel a. pryma

in contrast to most anatomic radiographic imaging techniques, nuclear medicine permits real time, non-invasive imaging of human physiology and pathophysiology and also allows for exquisite targeting of disease with therapeutic radiology. to open this window to the processes of human disease, one must first understand the physical processes behind radioactive decay and emission, as well the principles of radiation detection. practical nuclear medicine physics provides residents and practitioners in nuclear medicine and radiology a readable explanation of the physics concepts underpinning nuclear imaging and how they impact the utilization and interpretation of those images. following a brief introductory section, the book provides numerous case examples, illustrating various imaging artifacts and pitfalls that can be recognized and remedied with a solid understanding of the physics behind the procedure. understanding and applying the physics behind nuclear medicine is essential to maximizing not only diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy for providing optimal patient care, but “practical physics” is a required portion of radiology residency education and a designated area of the board exams.

the pathophysiologic basis of nuclear medicine

by abdelhamid h. elgazzar (editor)

this book, now in its third edition, aims to promote a deeper understanding of the scientific and clinical basis of nuclear medicine and the new directions in medical imaging. the new edition has been revised and updated to reflect recent changes and to ensure that the contents are in line with likely future directions. the book starts by providing essential information on general pathophysiology, cell structure and cell biology as well as the mechanisms of radiopharmaceutical localization in different tissues and cells. the clinical applications of nuclear medicine are then presented in a series of chapters that cover every major organ system and relate the basic knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology to the clinical utilization of various scintigraphic modalities. the therapeutic applications of nuclear medicine are discussed in a separate chapter, and the final chapter is devoted to the biologic effects of ionizing radiations, including radiation from medical procedures.